This paper describes an experimental study on the effect of tube diameter on the mechanism of flooding in vertical gas-liquid countercurrent annular flow. Flooding experiments were conducted with three different tube inner diameters, namely, 25, 67 and 99 mm with smooth inlet and outlet conditions for air and water. The results indicate that the mechanism of flooding is qualitatively different in the small and the large diameter test sections. While flooding in the 25 mm diameter section occurred essentially by the upward movement of large waves created near the liquid outlet, no such waves could be seen in the 67 and the 99 mm diameter test sections. Here, flooding occurred by droplet carryover or by an unstable, churn-like motion in the liquid film. The results are compared with existing correlations. The effect of test section length on flooding was also investigated. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.