This paper presents the impact of air pollutants on human health and vegetation at selected industrial and control areas of India. Air quality data monitored by regulatory agency and health data obtained from local hospitals for the period 2010-2012 were analyzed. The particulate matter (PM) size distributions and lung function of the exposed people were also measured in the two study regions using a nonviable cascade impactor and spirometer, respectively. Results indicated that the 24-h average PM10 concentration at the industrial area was 125.03±12.9 μg/m3 and the measured PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were 49.62±5.41 and 145.39±9.44 μg/m3, respectively. The measured PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at the control area were 26.09±0.38 and 8.29±0.18 μg/m3, respectively. The health data recorded at hospitals indicated maximum hospital admissions during winter period. The lung function analysis for both the study areas revealed that the people residing in the industrial area were having a lower air exchange rate compared to the people residing in the control area. The effect of air quality on vegetation was also investigated. It was found that the plants' photosynthetic rate in the industrial area was 50% lower than in the control area. The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) indicated highest APTI values of 13.1 and 16.4 for Bougainvillea plants in industrial and control areas, respectively. The lowest APTI value of 5.7 was observed for Eucalyptus species in the industrial area, which can be used as a potential bioindicator for air pollution assessment at the industrial area. Further, the dust deposition on the leaves of Bougainvillea was found to be 0.151 and 0.0989 mg/cm2 at industrial and control areas, respectively. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.