Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based liver tissue engineering on nanofibrous scaffold holds great promise for cell-based therapy in liver injuries and end-stage liver failure treatments. We investigated the hepatic trans-differentiation potential of human MSCs on a biocomposite poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly (ε-caprolactone)/collagen (PLACL/collagen) nanofibrous scaffold. The nanofibrous scaffolds comprised of PLACL, collagen and a PLACL/collagen blend (2:1) were fabricated by electrospinning and also evaluated for fiber morphology, surface wettability, functional groups, porosity and tensile properties. Hepatic trans-differentiation of human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) was carried out on these scaffolds over a period of 28 days using sequential induction with hepatogenic growth factors. Hepatogenesis was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell phenotype tracking dye expression, quantitative expression of hepatic genes, immunofluorescence staining of hepatocyte-specific markers and albumin release. The results proved that the porous PLACL/collagen nanofibrous scaffold supported enhanced hMSC proliferation and hepatic trans-differentiation compared to individual PLACL and collagen scaffolds as well as a monolayer culture on tissue culture plate (TCP). Interestingly, hMSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells on PLACL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds could aggregate to form functional 'hepatospheres' similar to normal hepatic spheroids. The present study concludes that PLACL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds are potentially biomimetic and upon sequential induction with hepatogenic growth factors/cytokines, it augments trans-differentiation of hMSCs towards functional hepatosphere formation. Such bioengineered nanofibrous scaffold hepatic construct provides a promising approach for cellular therapy of damaged livers in end-stage liver failure treatments. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.