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Towards ternary binders involving limestone additions — A review
, Dhandapani Y., Kaladharan G., Sivakumar Ramanathan
Published in Elsevier Ltd
Volume: 143
The review summarises literature to examine the transition from portland limestone cement system to composite ternary binder systems involving limestone. Interest in limestone addition as an ideal component in multicomponent binder systems has surged as evident from the large volume of literature published in the recent past. A ternary blended system, with co-substitution of limestone, has the potential to complement the reaction of the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The direct addition of limestone powder helps to attain higher substitution levels of portland cement clinker, improve early age properties, and supplement SCM's reactivity. However, the dilution of hydrates could hamper the long-term benefits. In this review, the interaction of fine limestone is classified and elaborated under two broad umbrellas: physical and chemical interactions. The physical interactions can manifest in three ways, namely, filler action, shearing action and improved packing, which alters reaction rate and extent at early ages. The chemical interactions also modify the reaction kinetics and phase assemblage due to nucleation of C-S-H on calcite surfaces, preservation of the ettringite phase and formation of carboaluminates. Two different forms of carboaluminate hydrates — hemicarboaluminate and mono-carboaluminate can be present in the hydrate matrix depending on the balance between carbonate ions and aluminates in the pore solution. Several factors such as replacement level, particle size, choice of SCM, its reactivity and reactive aluminates content, sulphate levels, curing temperature, and duration of curing can control the carboaluminate formation, reaction degree of SCMs and chemical interaction from limestone additions. A combination of physical and chemical effects makes fine limestone a potential material for co-substitution with aluminosilicate based SCMs, mainly fly ash, slag, and calcined clay. In this review, the factors affecting limestone-SCM composites are summarised based on a detailed literature survey. The effects of SCM-limestone cement composites on hydration kinetics, reaction chemistry, the reactivity of SCMs, the stability of hydrated phases, and contribution to the physical structure development and macroscopic properties by evaluating hydration and mechanical properties are discussed. The importance of AFm (Al2O3–Fe2O3-mono) phases in various deterioration mechanisms in concrete and their influence on performance characteristics in different exposure environment is critically appraised. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetCement and Concrete Research
PublisherData powered by TypesetElsevier Ltd
Open AccessNo