A cluster obtained in high yield from the reduction of a silver-thiolate precursor, Ag-SCH2CH2Ph, exhibited a single sharp peak near 25 kDa in the matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrum (MALDI MS) and a well-defined metal core of ∼2 nm measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cluster yields a single fraction in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Increased laser fluence fragments the cluster until a new peak near 19 kDa predominates, suggesting that the parent cluster-Ag152(SCH2CH2Ph)60-evolves into a stable inorganic core-Ag152S60. Exploiting combined insights from investigations of clusters and surface science, a core-shell structure model was developed, with a 92-atom silver core having icosahedral-dodecahedral symmetry and an encapsulating protective shell containing 60 Ag atoms and 60 thiolates arranged in a network of six-membered rings resembling the geometry found in self-assembled monolayers on Ag(111). The structure is in agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data. The protective layer encapsulating this silver cluster may be the smallest known three-dimensional self-assembled monolayer. First-principles electronic structure calculations show, for the geometry-optimized structure, the development of a ∼0.4 eV energy gap between the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied states, originating from a superatom 90-electron shell-closure and conferring stability to the cluster. The optical absorption spectrum of the cluster resembles that of plasmonic silver nanoparticles with a broad single feature peaking at 460 nm, but the luminescence spectrum shows two maxima with one attributed to the ligated shell and the other to the core. © 2012 American Chemical Society.