Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite bridge deck panels are high-strength, corrosion resistant, weather resistant, etc., making them attractive for use in new construction or retrofit of existing bridges. This study evaluated the force-deformation responses of FRP composite bridge deck panels under AASHTO MS 22.5 (HS25) truck wheel load and up to failure. Tests were conducted on 16 FRP composite deck panels and four reinforced concrete conventional deck panels. The test results of FRP composite deck panels were compared with the flexural, shear, and deflection performance criteria per Ohio Department of Transportation specifications, and with the test results of reinforced concrete deck panels. The flexural and shear rigidities of FRP composite deck panels were calculated. The response of all panels under service load, factored load, cyclic loading, and the mode of failure were reported. The tested bridge deck panels satisfied the performance criteria. The safety factor against failure varies from 3 to 8. © ASCE.