Molybdenum-catalyzed oxygen atom transfer reactions have attracted considerable interest due to their relevance to some biological processes. In this context, some oxidomolybdenum complexes are explored as catalysts for organic transformations such as oxidation reactions. The roles of oxidomolybdenum complexes as catalysts for sulfoxidation reactions under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions are reviewed. The utilities of oxidomolybdenum complexes have been further extended for environmentally friendly oxidation of sulfides under aqueous conditions using hydrogen peroxide as green oxidant. © 2018 Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.