It has been observed during the operation of the diesel engine fuel injection pump that the fuel and the lubrication oil leak through the working clearance between the piston and the cylinder bore and mix with each other. The leakage of lubrication oil to fuel (OtF) leads to injector nozzle coking and emission, which necessitates the automotive industry to design a robust fuel injection pump to meet stringent emission norms. Similarly, the leakage of fuel to lubrication oil leads to depreciation of lubrication property of the oil, thereby reducing the life of engine oil lubricated components. In this research, the leakage flow through this clearance gap was studied using the numerical simulation tool, Ansys CFX, to estimate the volume flow rate of lubrication oil to fuel and fuel to lubrication oil. Pressure and drag effects are two important mechanisms that drive the leakage process. The simulation was carried out for various design parameters such as clearance, clearance taper and speed, and experiments were performed to determine the lubrication oil to fuel and fuel to lubrication oil flow rates. The diluted samples collected from fuel and lubrication oil tanks were analyzed using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometry) for calcium and barium element tracing. Calibration was performed on the ICP bench to study the accuracy and repeatability of the test sample analysis method. The results of numerical simulations and experiments were compared for various design parameters. The proposed analysis could serve as a valuable aid in the fuel injection pump development process. © Institution of Mechanical Engineers.