Fenton based advanced oxidation process is a promising technology for the complete mineralization of persistent organic pollutants over the traditional physicochemical and biological treatment processes. Application of nanomaterials in the recent advancement of Fenton based water and wastewater treatment processes are reviewed in this study. Usage of active and stable nanocatalyst such as metal oxides, graphene/graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes supported metal oxide, clay based nanocomposites in Fenton, photo-Fenton, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton processes are discussed in detail. This review also highlights the application of nanocomposite based electrodes in electrochemical oxidation process for treating the bio-refractory compounds. Copyright © 2016 American Scientific Publishers.