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Interparticle Reactions: An Emerging Direction in Nanomaterials Chemistry
Kumaranchira Ramankutty Krishnadas, Ananya Baksi, Atanu Ghosh, Ganapati Natarajan,
Published in American Chemical Society
PMID: 28726382
Volume: 50
Issue: 8
Pages: 1988 - 1996
ConspectusNanoparticles exhibit a rich variety in terms of structure, composition, and properties. However, reactions between them remain largely unexplored. In this Account, we discuss an emerging aspect of nanomaterials chemistry, namely, interparticle reactions in solution phase, similar to reactions between molecules, involving atomically precise noble metal clusters. A brief historical account of the developments, starting from the bare, gas phase clusters, which led to the synthesis of atomically precise monolayer protected clusters in solution, is presented first. Then a reaction between two thiolate-protected, atomically precise noble metal clusters, [Au25(PET)18]- and [Ag44(FTP)30]4- (PET = 2-phenylethanethiol, FTP = 4-fluorothiophenol), is presented wherein these clusters spontaneously exchange metal atoms, ligands, and metal-ligand fragments between them under ambient conditions. The number of exchanged species could be controlled by varying the initial compositions of the reactant clusters. Next, a reaction of [Au25(PET)18]- with its structural analogue [Ag25(DMBT)18]- (DMBT = 2,4-dimethylbenzenethiol) is presented, which shows that atom-exchange reactions happen with structures conserved. We detected a transient dianionic adduct, [Ag25Au25(DMBT)18(PET)18]2-, formed between the two clusters indicating that this adduct could be a possible intermediate of the reaction. A reaction involving a dithiolate-protected cluster, [Ag29(BDT)12]3- (BDT = 1,3-benzenedithiol), is also presented wherein metal atom exchange alone occurs, but with no ligand and fragment exchanges. These examples demonstrate that the nature of the metal-thiolate interface, that is, its bonding network and dynamics, play crucial roles in dictating the type of exchange processes and overall rates. We also discuss a recently proposed structural model of these clusters, namely, the Borromean ring model, to understand the dynamics of the metal-ligand interfaces and to address the site specificity and selectivity in these reactions.In the subsequent sections, reactions involving atomically precise noble metal clusters and one- and two-dimensional nanosystems are presented. We show that highly protected, stable clusters such as [Au25(PET)18]- undergo chemical transformation on graphenic surfaces to form a bigger cluster, Au135(PET)57. Finally, we present the transformation of tellurium nanowires (Te NWs) to Ag-Te-Ag dumbbell nanostructures through a reaction with an atomically precise silver cluster, Ag32(SG)19 (SG = glutathione thiolate).The starting materials and the products were characterized using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, UV/vis absorption, luminescence spectroscopies, etc. We have analyzed principally mass spectrometric data to understand these reactions.In summary, we present the emergence of a new branch of chemistry involving the reactions of atomically precise cluster systems, which are prototypical nanoparticles. We demonstrate that such interparticle chemistry is not limited to metal clusters; it occurs across zero-, one-, and two-dimensional nanosystems leading to specific transformations. We conclude this Account with a discussion of the limitations in understanding of these reactions and future directions in this area of nanomaterials chemistry. © 2017 American Chemical Society.
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetAccounts of Chemical Research
PublisherData powered by TypesetAmerican Chemical Society
Open AccessNo