The present work investigates utilization of ultrasound in reagent-based coal de-ashing and de-sulfurization. The coal under study was received from Girald mine, Rajasthan, India. Three different ultrasonic frequencies (25kHz, Dual (58/192kHz) and 430kHz) and three reagents (HCl, HNO3 and H2O2) were used. The study employed a Taguchi fractional-factorial L27 DOE. Experimental data were used to derive an empirical model for the prediction of total sulfur removal. The model incorporates cavitational intensity, reagent concentration, sonication time, coal particle size and coal concentration as key parameters. Effects of above factors on reagent-based ultrasonic coal-desulfurization are presented here. An optimum set of process parameters are identified and validated. Larger-scale trial with high-ash and high-sulfur coals is strongly recommended. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.