An experimental and computational investigation is carried out to characterize the influence of reactants on critical conditions for extinction and for autoignition of propane and n- heptane in nonpremixed counter-flow configurations. Propane or vaporized n- heptane mixed with nitrogen is transported in one stream while the other stream is made up of air mixed with nitrogen. Measurements of the oxidizer stream temperature needed for autoignition are made at fixed values of the strain rate, either with the fuel mass fraction varied at a fixed oxygen mass fraction or with the oxygen mass fraction varied at a fixed fuel mass fraction. Extinction strain rates for propane are measured as a function of the oxygen mass fraction with room-temperature feed streams and the fuel mass fraction fixed and for n- heptane as a function of the fuel mass fraction with the oxygen mass fraction and feed-stream temperatures fixed. Predictions of critical conditions for extinction and autoignition are made employing detailed kinetic mechanisms. Predictions of critical conditions for extinction are in reasonable agreement with measurements, but there are significant discrepancies for autoignition. Measurements show that increasing the mass fraction of either fuel or oxygen increases the overall reactivity thereby reducing the autoignition temperature. The kinetic models predict the increase in reactivity of the mixing layer with increasing mass fraction of fuel but predict very little change in reactivity of the mixing layer with increasing mass fraction of oxygen, thus failing to predict the influence of oxygen on autoignition. It is concluded that there may exist kinetic pathways responsible for this disagreement that are yet to be discovered, and paths that fail to explain the results are identified. © 2020 The Combustion Institute.