Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has great clinical significance in the early detection and diagnosis of osteoporosis. In this study we evaluated the correlation of body mass index (BMI) and body composition on BMD and studied the effect of age and menopause in Indian women. Data on age, menopausal status, body mass index and body composition (tissue mass, fat tissue mass, lean body mass and bone mineral content) obtained from DEXA were collected from 24 pre-menopausal women (age 23-50) and 31 post-menopausal women (age 42-79). Women with high BMI are found to have greater BNID compared to that with lower BMI. Lean body mass showed strong correlation with BMD and a significant predictor (P<0.0001) of total BMID compared to fat mass. Average BNID in arms is found to be low when compared to pelvis and spine, but bone loss with age is found to be high in pelvis and spine. Age is negatively correlated to BMD and found very significant in post-menopausal women (P<0.0005) compared to pre-menopausal women (P<0.04). Bone mineral loss is found to be at higher rate immediately after menopause. © 2002 IEEE.