Modified 9Cr-1Mo is a ferritic-martensitic steel widely used in steam generators of fast breeder reactors in the nuclear industry due to their enhanced creep resistance. In the present investigation, P91 steel was welded without preheat using three different heat inputs by pulsed short-circuit metal inert gas welding process using a ER90S-B9 wire electrode for the first time. The microstructural developments were characterized by using optical and electron microscopy, while the residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction using the sin 2 ψ method. The grain size variation in the fusion zone/heat-affected zone was effectively studied using electron backscattered diffraction to bring out the changes quantitatively. The weld zone had a consistent texture, while the heat-affected zone was random. The grain size tends to increase with the increase in heat input which leads to reduced joint strength. It is evident that at highest heat input, the weld microstructure shows substantial precipitation of M 23 C 6 -type carbides. The residual stresses were near compressive in the weld-HAZ, while maximum tensile stresses were found for the highest heat input. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and ASM International.