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Dosage-sensitive function of RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED and convergent epigenetic control are required during the Arabidopsis life cycle
Published in
2010
PMID: 20585548
Volume: 6
   
Issue: 6
Pages: 1 - 12
Abstract
The plant life cycle alternates between two distinct multi-cellular generations, the reduced gametophytes and the dominant sporophyte. Little is known about how generation-specific cell fate, differentiation, and development are controlled by the core regulators of the cell cycle. In Arabidopsis, RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED (RBR), an evolutionarily ancient cell cycle regulator, controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and regulation of a subset of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) genes and METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1) in the male and female gametophytes, as well as cell fate establishment in the male gametophyte. Here we demonstrate that RBR is also essential for cell fate determination in the female gametophyte, as revealed by loss of cell-specific marker expression in all the gametophytic cells that lack RBR. Maintenance of genome integrity also requires RBR, because diploid plants heterozygous for rbr (rbr/RBR) produce an abnormal portion of triploid offspring, likely due to gametic genome duplication. While the sporophyte of the diploid mutant plants phenocopied wild type due to the haplosufficiency of RBR, genetic analysis of tetraploid plants triplex for rbr (rbr/rbr/rbr/RBR) revealed that RBR has a dosage-dependent pleiotropic effect on sporophytic development, trichome differentiation, and regulation of PRC2 subunit genes CURLY LEAF (CLF) and VERNALIZATION 2 (VRN2), and MET1 in leaves. There were, however, no obvious cell cycle and cell proliferation defects in these plant tissues, suggesting that a single functional RBR copy in tetraploids is capable of maintaining normal cell division but is not sufficient for distinct differentiation and developmental processes. Conversely, in leaves of mutants in sporophytic PRC2 subunits, trichome differentiation was also affected and expression of RBR and MET1 was reduced, providing evidence for a RBR-PRC2-MET1 regulatory feedback loop involved in sporophyte development. Together, dosage-sensitive RBR function and its genetic interaction with PRC2 genes and MET1 must have been recruited during plant evolution to control distinct generation-specific cell fate, differentiation, and development. © 2010 Johnston et al.
About the journal
JournalPLoS Genetics
ISSN15537390
Open AccessYes
Concepts (58)
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    CURLY LEAF PROTEIN
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    Gene product
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    METHYLTRANSFERASE 1
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    PLANT RNA
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    POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 PROTEIN
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    Retinoblastoma protein
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    RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED PROTEIN
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    Unclassified drug
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    VERNALIZATION 2 PROTEIN
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    Arabidopsis
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    Article
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    Cell cycle
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    CELL CYCLE REGULATION
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    Cell differentiation
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    Cell division
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    Cell fate
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    CELL MATURATION
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    Cell proliferation
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    Controlled study
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    Diploidy
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    Epigenetics
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    Feedback system
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    GAMETOPHYTE
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    Gene duplication
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    Gene interaction
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    Genetic analysis
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    Genetic regulation
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    HETEROZYGOSITY
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    IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION
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    Life cycle
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    MUTANT
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    Nonhuman
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    Plant cell
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    PLANT DEVELOPMENT
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    PLANT EVOLUTION
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    Plant genome
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    Plant leaf
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    PLANT TISSUE
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    Protein expression
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    Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
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    SPOROPHYTE
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    TRIPLOIDY
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    Wild type
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    Cell lineage
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    Cytology
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    Flower
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    Gene dosage
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    Genetic epigenesis
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    Genetics
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    Growth, development and aging
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    Metabolism
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    Mutation
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    Ploidy
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    Retinoblastoma
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    Epigenesis, genetic
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    Genome, plant
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    GERM CELLS, PLANT
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    Ploidies