Road asset management is a systematic process of maintaining, upgrading, and operating road assets cost-effectively. Several thousand kilometers of rural roads have been constructed during the past few years in India. The performance of these newly constructed roads under actual traffic, climate, and environmental conditions will be monitored periodically; and a database with data on their performance will be created. The database can be used in planning and scheduling of maintenance activities to preserve the rural road infrastructure by use of sound engineering principles. This paper is an attempt to highlight the various issues that need special attention to preserve the rural road infrastructure assets that are created in the country. The paper presents the effect of timing of maintenance on the pavement condition during the design life and the increased agency cost due to the delay in maintenance intervention. The application of computer-based pavement management tools such as the Highway Development and Management Tool in planning and scheduling of appropriate maintenance strategies is highlighted.