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What do the basal ganglia do? A modeling perspective
Published in
2010
PMID: 20644953
Volume: 103
   
Issue: 3
Pages: 237 - 253
Abstract
Basal ganglia (BG) constitute a network of seven deep brain nuclei involved in a variety of crucial brain functions including: action selection, action gating, reward based learning, motor preparation, timing, etc. In spite of the immense amount of data available today, researchers continue to wonder how a single deep brain circuit performs such a bewildering range of functions. Computational models of BG have focused on individual functions and fail to give an integrative picture of BG function. A major breakthrough in our understanding of BG function is perhaps the insight that activities of mesencephalic dopaminergic cells represent some form of 'reward' to the organism. This insight enabled application of tools from 'reinforcement learning,' a branch of machine learning, in the study of BG function. Nevertheless, in spite of these bright spots, we are far from the goal of arriving at a comprehensive understanding of these 'mysterious nuclei.' A comprehensive knowledge of BG function has the potential to radically alter treatment and management of a variety of BG-related neurological disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, etc.) and neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, etc.) also. In this article, we review the existing modeling literature on BG and hypothesize an integrative picture of the function of these nuclei. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
About the journal
JournalBiological Cybernetics
ISSN03401200
Open AccessNo
Concepts (26)
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    ACTION SELECTION
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    Actor critic
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    ACTOR CRITIC MODELS
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    BASAL GANGLIA
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    Dopamine
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    Brain
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    Diseases
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    Fuzzy control
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    Reinforcement learning
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    Timing circuits
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    Reinforcement
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    Animal
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    BASAL GANGLION
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    Biological model
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    Decision making
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    Histology
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    Human
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    NERVE TRACT
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    Physiology
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    Review
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    Animals
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    BASAL GANGLIA
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    Humans
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    Models, neurological
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    NEURAL PATHWAYS
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    REINFORCEMENT (PSYCHOLOGY)