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Vertebral Level-dependent Kinematics of Female and Male Necks under G+xLoading
N. Yoganandan, J.L. Baisden, J. John, , A. Banerjee, H. Choi
Published in Oxford University Press
PMID: 33499461
Volume: 186
Pages: 619 - 624
Introduction: Size-matched volunteer studies report gender-dependent variations in spine morphology, and head mass and inertia properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of these properties on upper and lower cervical spine temporal kinematics during G+x loading. Methods: Parametrized three-dimensional head-neck finite element models were used, and impacts were applied at 1.8 and 2.6 m/s at the distal end. Details are given in the article. Contributions of population-based variations in morphological and mass-related variables on temporal kinematics were evaluated using sensitivity analysis. Influence of variations on time to maximum nonphysiological curve formation, and flexion of upper and extension of the lower spines were analyzed for male-like and female-like spines. Results: Upper and lower spines responded with initial flexion and extension, resulting in a nonphysiological curve. Time to maximum nonphysiological curve and range of motions (ROMs) of the cervical column ranged from 45 to 66 ms, and 30 to 42 deg. Vertebral depth and location of the head center of gravity (cg) along anteroposterior axis were most influential variables for the upper spine flexion. Location of head cg along anteroposterior axis had the greatest influence on the time of the curve. Both anteroposterior and vertical locations of head cg, disc height, vertebral depth, head mass, and size were influential for the lower spine extension kinematics. Conclusions: Models with lesser vertebral depth, that is, female-like spines, experienced greater range of motions and pronounced nonphysiological curves. This results in greater distraction/stretch of the posterior upper spine complex, a phenomenon attributed to suboccipital headaches. Forward location of head cg along anteroposterior axis had the greatest influence on upper and lower spine motions and time of formation of the curve. Any increased anteroposterior location of cg attributable to head supported mass may induce greater risk of injuries/neck pain in women during G+x loading. © 2021 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States.
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JournalData powered by TypesetMilitary Medicine
PublisherData powered by TypesetOxford University Press