Despite several years of concentrated efforts to provide safe and improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities, progress towards universal access to WASH has been uneven. The problem is more acute in developing countries. Identification of target segments and proper understanding of barriers faced by these segments would have an important role to play in achieving universal access to WASH facilities. There are multiple ways of segmenting WASH beneficiaries: The conventional approach has been through geographical and social segmentation (such as urban, rural, poor and so on), however there is increasing advocacy for a life-cycle based approach that targets beneficiaries based on their gender, age and so on. This systematic review compares the trends in Life-Cycle Segmentation (LCS) vis-a-vis the Geographic and Social Segmentation (GSS) with the hypothesis that such an understanding would be helpful in achieving universal access to WASH. Drawing on policies, programmes and projects from 11 countries in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, it was found that in general, GSS has been the dominant approach to targeting population in WASH policy making and programming, though there were variations across regions and sectors. Incorporation of LCS would complement the GSS in improving effectiveness and equity of access to WASH interventions.
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|Journal||Journal of Development Effectiveness|
|Publisher||Taylor & Francis Group|