Biodegradable Mg–0.6Ca alloy was processed by groove pressing technique to obtain ultrafine-grained structure for orthopedic application. The effect of microstructural variations and surface features produced by groove pressing on the mechanical performance, corrosion resistance, and in-vitro bioactivity in Mg–0.6Ca alloy were investigated. The optical microscopy observation showed that a grain size of 5 µm (compared to 64 µm for annealed sample) was achieved after hot rolling and groove pressing. The results of the tensile test and hardness test indicated that there was enhancement in mechanical properties in the groove pressed (GP) sample (yield strength (YS) = 45.0 ± 3.2 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) = 124.10 ± 3.40 MPa, hardness = 55.0 ± 1.50 HV) than that of annealed (AN) sample (YS = 20.10 ± 2.40 MPa, UTS = 58.20 ± 3.80 MPa, hardness = 34.0 ± 1.30 HV). The decrease in grain size enhanced the biomineralization with an increase in the hydroxyapatite formation on the surface of the GP sample indicating higher passivation to corrosion. The high surface energy of the GP sample (24.07 ± 3.60 mJ/m2) than AN sample (45.14 ± 1.0 mJ/m2) indicated higher wettability of GP samples. The immersion and electrochemical tests indicated an improvement in corrosion resistance of the GP sample. Also the hydrogen evolution test showed a lower hydrogen evolution for the GP sample. © 2021, The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM.