We report the results of an experimental and numerical study conducted on a closed-cell aluminium foam that was subjected to uniaxial compression with lateral constraint. X-ray computed tomography was utilized to gain access into the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of the foam and some aspects of the deformation mechanisms. A series of advanced 3-D image analyses are conducted on the 3-D images aimed at characterizing the strain localization regions. We identify the morphological/geometrical features that are responsible for the collapse of the cells and the strain localization. A novel mathematical approach based on a Minkowski tensor analysis along with the mean intercept length technique were utilized to search for signatures of anisotropy across the foam sample and its evolution as a function of loading. Our results show that regions with higher degrees of anisotropy in the undeformed foam have a tendency to initiate the onset of cell collapse. Furthermore, we show that strain hardening occurs predominantly in regions with large cells and high anisotropy. We combine the finite element method with the tomographic images to simulate the mechanical response of the foam. We predict further deformation in regions where the foam is already deformed.