We study the ground-state phase diagram of the Ashkin-Teller random quantum spin chain by means of a generalization of the strong-disorder renormalization group. In addition to the conventional paramagnetic and ferromagnetic (Baxter) phases, we find a partially ordered phase characterized by strong randomness and infinite coupling between the colors. This unusual phase acts, at the same time, as a Griffiths phase for two distinct quantum phase transitions, both of which are of infinite-randomness type. We also investigate the quantum multicritical point that separates the two-phase and three-phase regions, and we discuss generalizations of our results to higher dimensions and other systems. © 2014 American Physical Society.