Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (AARS) plays an important role in transferring each amino acid to its cognate tRNA. Specifically, tyrosyl tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is involved in various functions including protection from DNA damage due to oxidative stress, protein synthesis and cell signaling and can be an attractive target for controlling the pathogens by early inhibition of translation. TyrRS has two disordered regions, which lack a stable 3D structure in solution, and are involved in tRNA synthetase catalysis and stability. One of the disordered regions undergoes disorder-to-order transition (DOT) upon complex formation with tRNA whereas the other remains disordered (DR). In this work, we have explored the importance of these disordered regions using molecular dynamics simulations of both free and RNA-complexed states. We observed that the DOT and DR regions of the first subunit acts as a flap and interact with the acceptor arm of the tRNA. The DOT-DR flap closes when tyrosine (TyrRSTyr) is present at the active site of the complex and opens in the presence of tyrosine monophosphate (TyrRSYMP). The DOT and DR regions of the second subunit interact with the anticodon stem as well as D-loop of the tRNA, which might be involved in stabilizing the complex. The anticodon loop of the tRNA binds to the structured region present in the C-terminal of the protein, which is observed to be flexible during simulations. Detailed energy calculations also show that TyrRSTyr complex has stronger binding energy between tRNA and protein compared to TyrRSYMP; on the contrary, the anticodon is strongly bound in TyrRSYMP. The results obtained in the present study provide additional insights for understanding catalysis and the involvement of disordered regions in Tyr transfer to cognate tRNA.
|Journal||Data powered by TypesetInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules|
|Publisher||Data powered by TypesetElsevier BV|