ConspectusThe coordination of an element-element σ bond to a transition metal (TM) is both a fundamentally intriguing binding mode and of critical importance to metal-mediated bond activation mechanisms and catalysis, particularly the hotly contested field of C-H activation. TM σ complexes of dihydrogen (i.e., H-H) and silanes (H-SiR3) have been extensively studied, the latter being of interest as models for the (generally unstable and unisolable) σ complexes of alkanes (i.e., H-CR3). TM σ complexes of hydroboranes and hydroborates (i.e., H-BR2, H-BR3, (H-)2BR2) are somewhat less well studied but similarly have relevance to catalytic borylation reactions that are of high current interest to organic synthesis. Our two research groups have made significant contributions to elaborating the family of σ-borane/-borate complexes using two distinct approaches: while the Ghosh group generally starts from hydrogen-rich tetracoordinate boron species such as borates, the Braunschweig group starts from hypovalent and/or hypocoordinate boron building blocks. Through these two approaches, a wide range of species containing one or two σ-bound B-H ligands have been prepared, some with additional chelating donor sites. Over the past 2 years, the body of work on σ-borane/-borate complexes from our two research groups has significantly expanded, with a combined nine published articles in 2019-2020 alone. Very recent work from the Braunschweig group has led to the synthesis of the first bis(σ)-borane complexes of group 6 metals, as well as the synthesis of a series of novel bis(σ)-borane and bis(σ)-borate complexes of ruthenium and iridium, the former being useful precursors for pentacoordinate borylene complexes of Ru. Recent work from the Ghosh group has uncovered a remarkable diversity of structures with σ(B-H)-bound ligands from the combination of borohydrides and nitrogen/chalcogen-containing groups and heterocycles. These reactions, while in some cases producing conventional scorpionate-type chelating products, more frequently undergo fascinating rearrangements with unpredictable outcomes. This Account aims to highlight this recent acceleration of research progress in this area, particularly the distinct but related approaches of - and complexes produced by - our two research groups, in addition to relevant works from other groups where appropriate. © 2021 American Chemical Society.