The generation of novel mesoporous materials with well-defined structure and accessible pore networks is helpful in both fundamental and energy-related research. Nanocasting mesoporous earth-abundant materials and their composite materials offer opportunities to make electrochemically active materials that allow scalable production and cost-effectiveness. Recently, due to their intrinsic open pore structure as well as high surface areas, various mesoporous cobalt-based ordered materials have been applied to electrocatalysis, rechargeable batteries, and supercapacitors. In this review, we have critically evaluated the advancements made specifically in three- and two-dimensionally (3D/2D) electrode Co-based materials (oxides, nitrides, phosphides, and sulfides). We outline foreseeable challenges and issues for the utilization of mesostructured cobalt-based electrode materials. This review also provides guidelines for further work to those who work on energy-related applications of mesoporous cobalt-based materials. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.