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QR code based patient data protection in ECG steganography
, Ponnambalam Mathivanan, Sam Edward Jero, Athi Balaji Ganesh
Published in Springer Netherlands
2018
PMID: 30397899
Volume: 41
   
Issue: 4
Pages: 1057 - 1068
Abstract
Connected health enables patient centric interventions resulting in better healthcare and hence better living. In order to accomplish this, bio-signals, medical and diagnosis information are shared and accessed by multiple actors and it is important to protect the privacy of patient data. Steganography is widely used to protect patient data by hiding it in the medical information. Current work investigates ECG steganography using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Quick Response (QR) code. Steganography deteriorates the ECG signal and it is important to minimize this deterioration to preserve diagnosability. 1D ECG signal is converted to 2D ECG image and decomposed into sub-bands by subjecting it to DWT. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in converting the patient data into QR code and using it as watermark in ECG steganography. The QR code is embedded in the 2D image using additive quantization scheme. The performance of proposed method is measured using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Percentage Residual Difference and Kullback–Leibler distance. These metrics are used as a measure of imperceptibility while the data loss during retrieval is measured by Bit Retrieval Rate. The proposed method is demonstrated on normal ECG signals obtained from MIT-BIH database for different QR code versions. Metrics reveal that imperceptibility decreased for increasing patient data size and increasing scaling factors. Metrics were independent of the sub-band and the proposed method allows reliable patient data protection with full retrieval ability. © 2018, Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine.
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetAustralasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine
PublisherData powered by TypesetSpringer Netherlands
ISSN01589938
Open AccessNo
Concepts (37)
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    Codes (symbols)
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    Deterioration
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    Discrete wavelet transforms
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    Electrocardiography
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    HOSPITAL DATA PROCESSING
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    Patient treatment
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    Signal to noise ratio
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    Steganography
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    CONNECTED HEALTHS
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    DIAGNOSIS INFORMATION
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    Medical information
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    Peak signal to noise ratio
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    Quantization schemes
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    QUICK RESPONSE CODE
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    RETRIEVAL RATE
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    Similarity metrics
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    Signal reconstruction
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    Adult
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    Article
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    Decomposition
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    Discrete wavelet transform
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    Electrocardiogram
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    Human
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    Information retrieval
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    PATIENT CODING
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    SIGNAL NOISE RATIO
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    Computer network
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    Computer security
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    ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD
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    Procedures
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    Signal processing
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    Telemedicine
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    COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
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    Electronic health records
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    Humans
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    Signal processing, computer-assisted
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    Signal-to-noise ratio