Proteome analysis was used to compare global protein expression changes in Escherichia coli fermentation between exponential and glucose-limited fed-batch phase. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used to separate and identify 49 proteins showing >2-fold difference in expression. Proteins upregulated during exponential phase include ribonucleotide biosynthesis enzymes and ribosomal recycling factor. Proteins upregulated during fed-batch phase include those involved in high-affinity glucose uptake, transport and degradation of alternate carbon sources and TCA cycle, suggesting an enhanced role of the cycle under glucose- and energy-limited conditions. We report the upregulation of several putative proteins (ytfQ, ygiS, ynaF, yggX, yfeX), not identified in any previous study under carbon-limited conditions.
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