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Prediabetes uncovers differential gene expression at fasting and in response to oral glucose load in immune cells
, Mallu A.C.T., Vasudevan M., Allanki S., Nathan A.A., Ravi M.M., Ramanathan G.S., Pradeepa R., Viswanathan Mohan
Published in
2021
Volume: 40
   
Issue: 3
Pages: 1247 - 1259
Abstract
Background and objective: Metabolic disorders including diabetes are associated with immune cell dysfunction. However, the effect of normal glucose metabolism or impairment thereof on immune cell gene expression is not well known. Hence, in this cross-sectional pilot study, we sought to determine the differences in gene expression in the peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) of normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and prediabetic (PD) Asian Indian men, at fasting and in response to 75 g oral glucose load. Methods: Illumina HT12 bead chip-based microarray was performed on PBMCs at fasting and 2-h post load conditions for NGT (N = 6) and PD (N = 9) subjects. Following normalization and due quality control of the raw data, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under different conditions within and across the two groups were identified using GeneSpring GX V12.0 software. Paired and unpaired Student's t-tests were applied along with fold change cut-offs for appropriate comparisons. Validation of the microarray data was carried out through real-time qPCR analysis. Significantly regulated biological pathways were analyzed by employing DEGs and DAVID resource. Deconvolution of the DEGs between NGT and PD subjects at fasting was performed using CIBERSORT and genes involved in regulatory T-cell (Treg) function were further analyzed for biological significance. Results: Glucose load specifically altered the expression of 112 genes in NGT and 356 genes in PD subjects. Biological significance analysis revealed transient up-regulation of innate and adaptive immune response related genes following oral glucose load in NGT individuals, which was not observed in PD subjects. Instead, in the PD group, glucose load led to an increase in the expression of pro-atherogenic and anti-angiogenic genes. Comparison of gene expression at fasting state in PD versus NGT revealed 21,707 differentially expressed genes. Biological significance analysis of the immune function related genes between these two groups (at fasting) revealed higher gene expression of members of the TLR signaling, MHC class II molecules, and T-cell receptor, chemotaxis and adhesion pathways in PD subjects. Expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and TNFα was higher and that of type-1 interferons and TGF-β was lower at fasting state in PD subjects compared to NGT. Additionally, expression of multiple proteasome subunits and protein arginine methyl transferase genes (PRMTs) were higher and that of Treg specific genes was significantly distinct at fasting in PD subjects compared to NGT. Conclusion: Prediabetes uncovers constitutive TLR activation, enhanced IFN-γ signaling, and Treg dysfunction at fasting along with altered gene expression response to oral glucose load. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism
About the journal
JournalClinical Nutrition
ISSN2641-2292
Open AccessNo