The synthesis and characterization of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh) by the polymer modification route are reported. Polystyrene prepared by free-radical and anionic polymerization was acetylated quantitatively to poly(4-acetylstyrene) (ACPS) with acetyl chloride and anhydrous aluminum trichloride in carbon disulfide. The acetylation worked equally well in a mixture of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and nitrobenzene containing largely DCE. The extent of the acetylation was estimated by 1H NMR. The oxidation of ACPS was carried out with various oxidizing agents and reaction conditions. The peracetic acid oxidation in chloroform resulted in quantitative oxidation to poly(4-acetoxystyrene) (APS) as estimated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The treatment of APS with hydrazine hydrate in dioxane resulted in the formation of PVPh. Deacetylation occurred with equal versatility in a mixture of aqueous sodium hydroxide and tetrahydrofuran. All the polymers were characterized via gel permeation chromatography, IR, UV, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. This is the first report on the synthesis of ACPS, APS, and PHS of reasonably narrow molecular weight distributions or otherwise by the polymer modification route.