Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is necessary to mitigate global warming caused by anthropogenic CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere. However, due to very high storage cost, it is difficult to sustain the CCS industry. The hot sedimentary and dry rock reservoirs with very high temperature can support both geothermal energy production, and carbon geosequestration economically, provided the CO 2 is used as a heat-carrying fluid with proper optimization of injection parameters according to reservoir conditions. In this paper we have reviewed past studies discussing the working mechanisms, pressure management strategies and various advantages of energy extraction from hydrothermal reservoirs by CO 2 plume geothermal technology and hot dry rock— enhanced geothermal system (EGS) technology. Past studies highlighted that due to very high thermal expansivity and mobility, supercritical CO 2 can produce more heat than water-EGS. For low enthalpy (around 50 ∘C) and shallow (0.5–1.5 km) reservoirs, CO 2 can fetch more heat than water because of higher heat capacity. Other advantages of CCS and EGS are (i) the production of brine or CO 2 assisting to manage the reservoir pressure and restrict the fluid interference with neighboring reservoirs, (ii) the fluid loss, which is a significant concern in a water-EGS but for CO 2-EGS it is environmentally friendly, and (iii) higher pressure and cold fluid injection induced geological deformation and microseismicity are relatively less for CO 2-EGS than water-EGS. In this paper, we have also discussed various challenges of CO 2-EGS to enable CCS in hydrothermal reservoir and hot dry rock system. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.