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The structure of confined wakes behind a square cylinder in a channel is investigated via the numerical solution of the unsteady Navier–Stokes equations. Vortex shedding behind the cylinder induces periodicity in the flow field. Details of the phenomenon are simulated through numerical flow visualization. The unsteady periodic wake can be characterized by the Strouhal number, which varies with the Reynolds number and the blockage ratio of the channel. The periodicity of the flow is, however, damped in the downstream region of a long duct. This damping may be attributed to the influence of side walls on the flow structure.
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