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Nanomaterials: Versatile drug carriers for nanomedicine
A.S. Shinde, P.S. Shinde,
Published in Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Volume: 16
Pages: 253 - 296
Certain medicines and therapies have emerged for the treatment of different ailments. But in many cases, they have poor solubility, lower bioavailability, inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and drug resistance. It becomes essential to establish standard treatment systems for overcoming such challenges. In this connection, the nanomaterial application in medicine and pharmaceuticals has rapidly gained interest with revolutionary prospects. The idea of nano-carriers first observed in a biological system consisting of nanoparticles is committed to locomotory function and protein cargos like importin, exportin. This observation led to the development of biomimetic nanomaterials for drug delivery. The synthesized nanomaterials exhibit useful properties such as large surface area, maximum bioavailability, reduced toxicity, high specificity along with enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. These properties contribute to enhancing the efficacy of drugs having short half-lives, monitoring drugs for sustained release, enhancing the rate of dissolution of drugs, and reducing required dosage volume. Thus, increased therapeutic action and fewer side effects are to improve the quality of human life. Currently, many nano-carriers such as niosomes, dendrimers, fullerene, polymer-based nanoparticles, micelle, liposomes, hydrogels, metallic, mesoporous silica, quantum dots, etc. show potential for better drug delivery systems. These help in carrying entities like drug molecules, DNA/RNA, proteins, viruses, cell receptor sites, lipid bilayers, and variable antibody region for drug delivery in therapeutics. Such nano-therapeutics and diagnostics will unfold the secrets of human longevity and help reduce human illness, including cardiovascular disease, genetic disorder, immunodeficiency, cancer, and even viral infections. This chapter highlights recent advancements and applications of nano-carriers for drug delivery in medicine, especially wound healing therapeutics. It also discusses different approaches to enhance drug cargo capacity, improve cell delivery efficiency, to avoid host immune systems, and to achieve specific cell targeting. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021.
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetSpringer Series in Biomaterials Science and Engineering
PublisherData powered by TypesetSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH