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Nano-remediation of toxic heavy metal contamination: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]
, Azeez N.A., Dash S.S., Deepa V.S.
Published in Elsevier Ltd
PMID: 33310359
Volume: 266
The inexorable industrialization and modern agricultural practices to meet the needs of the increasing population have polluted the environment with toxic heavy metals such as Cr(VI), Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+. Among the hazardous heavy metal(loid)s contamination in agricultural soil, water, and air, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the most virulent carcinogen. The metallurgic industries, tanneries, paint manufacturing, petroleum refineries are among various such human activities that discharge Cr(VI) into the environment. Various methods have been employed to reduce the concentration of Cr(VI) contamination with nano and bioremediation being the recent advancement to achieve recovery at low cost and higher efficiency. Bioremediation is the process of using biological sources such as plant extracts, microorganisms, and algae to reduce the heavy metals while the nano-remediation uses nanoparticles to adsorb heavy metals. In this review, we discuss the various activities that liberate Cr(VI). We then discuss the various conventional, nano-remediation, and bioremediation methods to keep Cr(VI) concentration in check and further discuss their efficiencies. We also discuss the mechanism of nano-remediation techniques for better insight into the process. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetChemosphere
PublisherData powered by TypesetElsevier Ltd
Open AccessNo