Streptococcus agalactiae is reported to be an asymptomatic vaginal colonizer in Indian women, although it is considered one of the major causes of neonatal infections in many European countries. DNA based molecular typing methods are more reliable than the conventional serotyping method for identification and typing of this pathogen. In the present study, we have evaluated genetic diversity among colonizing S. agalactiae strains (n=86) by using a PCR-based genotyping method i.e. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). With ERIC-PCR fingerprinting at 60% similarity level in a dendrogram generated by UPGMA cluster analysis, 10 different ERIC groups were identified, which were subdivided into 62 distinct genotypes at ≥ 95% similarity level. Based on these findings, we demonstrate that ERIC-PCR is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive tool with sufficient discriminatory power and is applicable for characterization and genotyping of a large number of clinical isolates of S. agalactiae at molecular level. © 2008 Association of Microbiologists of India.