The effect of shallow cryogenic treatment (SCT) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al7075-T6 is investigated in the present work. The alloy was subjected to shallow CT at −80 °C for 72 h. Mechanical tests such as Vickers hardness test, tensile, and fatigue tests were performed on both native and treated samples. It was observed that the mechanical properties such as hardness, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength increased by about 30, 17, and 7%, respectively, for the treated sample. The treated alloy was characterized by using the techniques such as optical microscopy, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe the changes in the microstructural features. EBSD results show precipitation, better distribution of second-phase particles, and higher dislocation density in the treated alloy as compared to the untreated alloy. The treatment imparts improved hardness and strength to the alloy due to precipitation hardening and high dislocation density. Fracture morphologies of the treated and the native samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and it was observed that the striations were denser in the treated sample justifying the higher fatigue strength. © 2016, ASM International.