The linear stability characteristics of pressure-driven miscible two-fluid flow with same density and varying viscosities in a channel with velocity slip at the wall are examined.Aprominent feature of the instability is that only a band ofwave numbers is unstable whatever the Reynolds number is, whereas shorter wavelengths and smaller wave numbers are observed to be stable. The stability characteristics are different from both the limiting cases of interface dominated flows and continuously stratified flows in a channel with velocity slip at the wall. The flow system is destabilizing when a more viscous fluid occupies the region closer to the wall with slip. For this configuration a new mode of instability, namely the overlap mode, appears for high mass diffusivity of the two fluids. This mode arises due to the overlap of critical layer of dominant instability with the mixed layer of varying viscosity. The critical layer contains a location in the flowdomain atwhich the base flowvelocity equals the phase speed of themost unstable disturbance. Such amode also occurs in the corresponding flow in a rigid channel, but absent in either of the above limiting cases of flow in a channel with slip. The flow is unstable at low Reynolds numbers for a wide range of wave numbers for low mass diffusivity, mimicking the interfacial instability of the immiscible flows. A configuration with less viscous fluid adjacent to the wall is more stable at moderate miscibility and this is also in contrast with the result for the limiting case of interface dominated flows in a channel with slip, where the above configuration ismore unstable. It is possible to achieve stabilization or destabilization of miscible two-fluid flow in a channel with wall slip by appropriately choosing the viscosity of the fluid layer adjacent to the wall. In addition, the velocity slip at the wall has a dual role in the stability of flow system and the trend is influenced by the location of the mixed layer, the location of more viscous fluid and the mass diffusivity of the two fluids. It is well known that creating a viscosity contrast in a particularway in a rigid channel delays the occurrence of turbulence in a rigid channel. The results of the present study show that the flow system can be either stabilized or destabilized by designing the walls of the channel as hydrophobic surfaces, modeled by velocity slip at the walls. The study provides another effective strategy to control the flow system. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.