The identification of numerous unique targets in recent years has led to the development of various immunotoxins (ITs) for treating hematological malignancies. Some of these ITs have advanced to clinical trials and have resulted in a high response rate against leukemia. Newer targets with improve specificity are also being identified for targeting several leukemias. Currently, several modified versions of ITs with increased efficacy are being constructed and evaluated for cytotoxicity in vitro as well as in vivo. Here, we summarize recent advances in preclinical and clinical studies of recombinant ITs targeting diverse surface receptors. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved .