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Human health risk assessment for exposure to BTEXN in an urban aquifer using deterministic and probabilistic methods: A case study of Chennai city, India
Published in Elsevier Ltd
2020
Volume: 265
   
Abstract
Main Finding: This study found the exceeding levels of priority pollutants, BTEX, in an urban aquifer due to the petroleum spill and predicted the range of probable health risk levels on various residents. © 2020 Elsevier LtdThe aquifer in Tondiarpet, Chennai, had been severely contaminated with petroleum fuels due to an underground pipeline leakage. Groundwater samples were analyzed quarterly for priority pollutants such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and naphthalene (BTEXN) using purge and trap gas chromatography and mass spectrometer from 2016 to 2018. The maximum concentrations of BTEXN in groundwater at the site were found to be greater than the permissible limits significantly. Among the five sampling locations (MW1, MW2, MW3, MW4, and MW5), mean BTEXN levels were found to be higher near MW2, confirming the source location of petroleum leakage. Human health risk assessment was carried out using deterministic and probabilistic methods for exposure to BTEXN by oral and dermal exposure pathways. Risk analysis indicated that mean cancer and non-cancer risks were many times higher than the allowable limits of 1E-06 and 1 respectively in all age groups (children, teens, and adults), implying the adverse health effects. Oral exposure is predominately contributing (60–80%) to the total health risk in comparison to the dermal exposure route. Variability and uncertainty were addressed using the Monte Carlo simulations and the resultant minimum, maximum, 5th, 95th, and mean percentile risks were predicted. Under the random exposure conditions to BTEXN, it was estimated that the risk would become unacceptable for >98.7% of the exposed population. Based on the sensitivity analysis, exposure duration, and ingestion rate are the crucial variables contributing significantly to the health risk. As part of the risk management, preliminary remediation goals for the study site were estimated, which require >99% removal of the BTEXN contamination for risk-free exposures. It is suggested that the residents of Tondiarpet shouldn't utilize the contaminated groundwater mainly for oral ingestion to lower the cancer incidence related to exposure to BTEXN. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetEnvironmental Pollution
PublisherData powered by TypesetElsevier Ltd
Open AccessNo