Human phospholipid scramblase 1(hPLSCR1), when expressed in E. coli (BL-21 DE3), forms inclusion bodies that are functionally inactive. We studied the effects of various stress inducing agents and chaperones on soluble expression of hPLSCR1 in E. coli (BL-21 DE3). Addition of 3% (v/v) ethanol before induction and decreasing the post-induction temperature to 15°C increased the solubility of hPLSCR1 to ~10 and ~15% respectively. Presence of groES-groEL complex solubilized the hPLSCR1 to ~30% of the total hPLSCR1. Absence of groES-groEL did not improve the solubility of hPLSCR1 suggesting that groES and groEL are the essential chaperones for the correct folding of hPLSCR1 when over-expressed in E. coli. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.