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Extending Imaging Depth in PLD-Based Photoacoustic Imaging: Moving beyond Averaging
, Chandramoorthi S.
Published in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
PMID: 32784132
Volume: 68
Issue: 3
Pages: 549 - 557
Pulsed laser diodes (PLDs) promise to be an attractive alternative to solid-state laser sources in photoacoustic tomography (PAT) due to their portability, high-pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and cost effectiveness. However, due to their lower energy per pulse, which, in turn, results in lower fluence required per photoacoustic signal generation, PLD-based photoacoustic systems generally have maximum imaging depth that is lower in comparison to solid-state lasers. Averaging of multiple frames is usually employed as a common practice in high PRF PLD systems to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the PAT images. In this work, we demonstrate that by combining the recently described approach of subpitch translation on the receive-side ultrasound transducer alongside averaging of multiple frames, it is feasible to increase the depth sensitivity in a PLD-based PAT imaging system. Here, experiments on phantom containing diluted India ink targets were performed at two different laser energy level settings, that is, 21 and 27 μ \textJ. Results obtained showed that the imaging depth improves by 38.5% from 9.1 to 12.6 mm for 21- μ \textJ energy level setting and by 33.3% from 10.8 to 14.4 mm for 27- μ \textJ energy level setting by using λ /4-pitch translation and average of 128 frames in comparison to λ -pitch data acquired with the average of 128 frames. However, the achievable frame rate is reduced by a factor of 2 and 4 for λ /2 and λ /4 subpitch translation, respectively. © 1986-2012 IEEE.
About the journal
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open AccessNo