Halotolerant microalga Dunaliella, which is exploited for the production of dried biomass or cell extract, is used as a medicinal food. With the advancement in this field in recent years, the production of bio-organic compounds such as β-carotene is established in many countries. Large-scale production of β-carotene is controlled by numerous stress factors like high light intensity, high salinity, temperature and availability of nutrients. The state-of-the-art strategies in industries in closed systems under new set of inductive factors will additionally promote the ease of commercial production of β-carotene. This review mainly focuses on the different methodologies employed recently for the optimum production of β-carotene from Dunaliella species. © 2007 Springer-Verlag.