The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults are increasing worldwide with impaired repair mechanisms, leading to tissue and organ failure. With the current advancements, life expectancy has improved and has led to search for new treatment strategies that improves tissue regeneration. Recently, stem cell therapy and tissue engineering has captured the attention of clinicians, scientists, and patients as alternative treatment options. The overall clinical experience of these suggests that they can be safely used in the right clinical setting. Ultimately, large outcome trials will have to be conducted to assess their efficacy. Clinical trials have to be carefully designed and patient safety must remain the key concern. At the same time, continued basic research is required to understand the underlying mechanism of cell-based therapies and cell tissue interactions. This chapter reviews the evolving paradigm of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches for clinical application and explores its implications. © 2016, IGI Global. All rights reserved.