The carbon fiber-reinforced polymeric (CFRP) composite materials are the material of choice for the aircraft structures as the designers require lightweight structures with enhanced mechanical properties. These materials are susceptible to accidental impacts during service and maintenance, and the damage will progress under varying static or dynamic service load conditions leading to the ultimate failure of the component. Recent advancement in non-destructive techniques such as X-ray computed tomography provide excellent details about the presence of damages in 3-Dimension in a component, which is an useful input for failure prediction and remaining life estimation. However, the quality of X-ray CT imaging is dependent on the equipment used, its calibration and image settings which, in turn, may affect the reliability and repeatability of damage quantification, if damage analysis is done in a routine way using binarization algorithms. In this study, the defects as well as the damage present in the low-velocity impacted CFRP laminates subjected to fatigue loading conditions are quantified and analyzed by the analysis of CT scan images obtained from two different CT systems with images of different resolution and contrast. The results of the comparative study show that the damage analysis of polymer composites using X-ray CT depends largely on the image quality and the choice of right threshold level is important for accurate damage estimation. © 2020, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.