Oil jet peening makes use of high-pressure oil jet to impart compressive residual stresses on the surface of metallic materials in order to improve the surface properties. This article reports the dry sliding wear characteristics of oil jet peened aluminium alloy, AA6063-T6. The presence of compressive residual stress and high hardness improves the wear resistance of oil jet peened surfaces. Changes in the hardness, surface morphology, and residual stress distribution due to peening affect the tribological behaviour. The initial and steady-state coefficient of friction are less in the treated samples compared to untreated samples. The scanning electron microscope images of the worn surfaces reveal the dominant adhesive and mild abrasive form of wear.