A study was conducted to quantify the effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and temperature on soil organic nitrogen (N) fractions and enzyme activities in rice rhizosphere. Rice crop was grown inside the open top chambers in the ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute. The N was applied in four different doses. Grain yield and aboveground N uptake by rice significantly reduced under elevated temperature. However, elevated CO 2 along with elevated temperature was able to compensate this loss. Principal component analysis clearly indicated that microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass N, amino acid N, total hydrolysable N, ammonia N and serine-threonine N contributed significantly to rice grain yield. Combined effect of elevated CO 2 and elevated temperature decreased the total hydrolysable N, especially for lower N doses. The N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and leucine aminopeptidase enzyme activities were negatively correlated with the organic N pools. Higher activities of these enzymes under limited N supply may accelerate the decomposition of organic N in soil. When N was applied in super-optimal dose, plant N demand was met thereby causing lesser depletion of total hydrolysable N. Better nitrogen management will alleviate faster depletion of native soil N under future scenario of climate change and thus might cause N sequestration in soil. © 2020 CSIRO.