This paper proposes a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) scheme based on differential phase encoding. The differential phase shift MDI-QKD (DPS-MDI-QKD) couples the advantages of DPS-QKD with that of MDI-QKD. The proposed scheme offers resistance against photon number splitting attack and phase fluctuations as well as immunity against detector side-channel vulnerabilities. The design proposed in this paper uses weak coherent pulses in a superposition of three orthogonal states, corresponding to one of three distinct paths in a delay-line interferometer. The classical bit information is encoded in the phase difference between pulses traversing successive paths. This 3-pulse superposition offers enhanced security compared to using a train of pulses by decreasing the learning rate of an eavesdropper and unmasking her presence with an increased error rate upon application of intercept and resend attack and beamsplitter attack. The proposed scheme employs phase locking of the sources of the two trusted parties so as to maintain the coherence between their optical signal, and uses a beamsplitter (BS) at the untrusted node (Charlie) to extract the key information from the phase encoded signals. © 2019 IEEE.