This paper reviews the salient features about development of port infrastructure at VOC Port, either modernising inner harbour or development of outer harbour. In order to increase the current cargo handling capacity from 64 Million Tonnes to 125 Million Tonnes, two alternatives are considered: Alternative I—Deepening of inner harbour basin up to (−)16.50 m CD and strengthening of existing berths for handling 6th generation Container vessels of 8000–12,500 TEU capacity and Post Panamax 95,000 DWT carriers and tankers having maximum draft of 15.20 m. Alternative II—Deepening and development of outer harbour with extension of Northern Break water and Southern Break Water, and Construction of new berths inside Break waters. The implementation of Alternative I and Alternative II will take 5 years and 10 years respectively. For prompt development, Alternative I is found to be most feasible. The total capital cost arrived for implementation of Alternative I is found to be 20% cheaper than Alternative II. The dredging quantity is more for Alternative I, but the dredge materials are utilised for reclamation. The schemes for upgradation/retrofitting of existing berths for deeper draft without affecting the cargo handling are also discussed. © 2021, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.