Pavement maintenance decisions are based on skimpy rules and rules of thumb. Generally, the selection of roads for maintenance is based on a worst-first policy. The timing of maintenance intervention and standards adopted for maintenance govern the service life of the pavement. The rate of pavement deterioration depends on the timing of maintenance intervention, choice of the type of maintenance treatment, and the quality of the construction. In the present investigation, the periodic performance data of typical low-volume rural roads constructed under the rural road development programs in India are considered. Performance prediction models are developed. The models are used to predict the performance during the design life. Different maintenance interventions are considered at different pavement conditions. The effect of the timing of maintenance on agency costs and vehicle operation costs is quantified and presented.