Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease affecting nearly 70% of children in India and elsewhere. Micro-ecological niche based acidification due to dysbiosis in oral microbiome are crucial for caries onset and progression. Here we report the tooth bacteriome diversity compared in Indian children with caries free (CF), severe early childhood caries (SC) and recurrent caries (RC). High quality V3–V4 amplicon sequencing revealed that SC exhibited high bacterial diversity with unique combination and interrelationship. Gracillibacteria_GN02 and TM7 were unique in CF and SC respectively, while Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria were significantly high in RC. Interestingly, we found Streptococcus oralis subsp. tigurinus clade 071 in all groups with significant abundance in SC and RC. Positive correlation between low and high abundant bacteria as well as with TCS, PTS and ABC transporters were seen from co-occurrence network analysis. This could lead to persistence of SC niche resulting in RC. Comparative in vitro assessment of biofilm formation showed that the standard culture of S. oralis and its phylogenetically similar clinical isolates showed profound biofilm formation and augmented the growth and enhanced biofilm formation in S. mutans in both dual and multispecies cultures. © 2020, The Author(s).