The principle of selective targeting of immunotoxins lies on the basis that cancer cells usually have few or specific growth factors/receptors/antigens highly over expressed on their surface. Ligands corresponding to these molecules are conjugated to modified toxins (modified to loss its native function) isolated form variety of bacterial populations. Normal cells either do not express these molecules or express at relatively low number leading to no or minimal adverse effects. The basic mechanism of action of these immunotoxins depends on the toxins employed. In this regard continuous efforts are being made to (i) Identity molecules exclusively expressed in cancer cells, (ii) to improve the specificity and efficacy (iii) reduce size effects of the drugs, (iv) Reduce immunogenicity and (v) to improve better pharmacokinetics for drugs delivery. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. All rights reserved.